The noun is one of the most important parts of speech. Its arrangement with the verb helps to form the sentence core, which is essential to every complete sentence. In addition, it may function as the chief or “head” word in many structures of modification. The noun head, with its own pre- and post-modifiers, is called a noun phrase.



Some nouns may belong to more than one of the types given bellow.

Proper Nouns

A proper noun begins with a capital letter in writing. It includes:

  1. personal names (Mr.John Smith)
  2. names of geographic units such as countries, cities, rivers, etc. (Holland, Paris)
  3. names of nationalities and religions (British, Islam)
  4. names of holidays (Easter, Thanks giving Day)
  5. names of time units (Saturday, June)
  6. names of historic events and documents (World War II, the Declaration of Independence)
  7. words used to personification-a thing or abstraction treated as a person (Nature, Liberty)

As oppsed to proper nouns, all other noouns are classified as common nouns.

Concrete or Abstract Nouns

A concrete noun is a word for physical object that can be perceived by the senses. We can see, touch, smell the object (flower,girl). An abstract noun is word for a concept. It is an idea that exists in our mind only (Beauty, justice, mankind)

Countable or Noncountable Nouns

A countable noun can usually be made plural by the addition of -s (one girl, two girls). A noncountable noun is not used in the plural. Mass Nouns form one type of noncountable noun. They are words for concrete objects stated in an undivided quantity (coffee, iron). Abstract nouns (including names of schools subjects and sports) are noncuntable.
Some noncountale nouns may also be used in a countable sense and will therefore have a plural. In the sentence We had chicken for dinner, chicken as a food is a mass noun; in There were many chickens in the yard, chickens is a countable noun. In addition, a noncountable noun may be used in the plural with special meaning of kinds of: Many fruits were displayed at the fair.

Collective Nouns

A collective noun is a word for a group of people, animals, or objects considered as a single unit.
audience, committee, class, crew, crowd, enemy, faculty, family, flock, flock, government, group, herd, jury, majority, minority, orchestra, press, public, team.


In American English a collective noun used as subjects usually takes a singular verb:
The committee has decided to make some recommendations.
However, If attention is beung drawn to the indivitual members of the unit, a plural verbs is used:
Committee have disagreed among themselves.
With some of these collective nouns, British usage prefers plural verb:
The government (or The public) were asked to cooperate.

collective nouns are countable nouns; they may be used in the plural:

All the committees have now made their recommendations.

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