Key Facts about Nouns
Nouns describe concrete things that you can see or touch: a friend, a house, a church; and abstract things that you can not see or touch: happiness, information, love, time.
- To form the plural of most nouns add -(e)s:
friend-friends, house-houses, church-churches
- Nouns ending in -ch, -sh, -s, -ss, -x add -es:
match-matches, wish-wishes, bus-buses, kis-kisses, box-boxes
- Nouns ending in consonant + y change the y to i and add -es: baby-babies, country-countries,
(vowel + y just add -s : boy-boys)
- Most nouns ending in -f change the f to v and add -es: wife-wives, shelf-shelves
- Note these irregulars plurals:
man-men, woman-women, child-children, foot-feet, mouse-mice, tooth-teeth
- The nouns police and people are plural in English.
The police have arrived; people are angry.
- Foods, substances and materials are always singular.
bread, milk, grass, snow, steel, cotton, glass
- Abstract nouns are also always singular.
love, happiness, information
! Note that these words are singular in English:
news, advise, furniture, work, homework, progress, luggage,
Hard work is good for you.
No new is good news.
- To show possession by people or animals, add -‘(s) or -(s)’ : the boy’s bicycle, women’s rights, girls’ magazines
! Use this form with time expressions:
in three days’ time, yesterday’s newspaper
- In other cases use compound nouns: bedroom, computer program, washing machine
or the preposition of : a cup of tea, the leg of the table
3- Compound nouns
- The first part describes the second part:
toothbrush=a brush used for cleaning teeth
- Write compound nouns as one word where both parts are very short:
homework, bedroom, toothbrush
…to be continued